The Italian Mezzogiorno, including the regions south of Rome, Sardinia and Sicily, has always been poorer than the rest of the peninsula. The socio-economic problems that existed at the time of Italy's unification were left unsolved and almost unchallenged by the Italian state for nearly a century. It was only after the Second World War that the state attempted to intervene in the Mezzogiorno to rescue its economy and try to bridge the gap between North and South. However, the large state-financed programs of the s and s achieved far less than its creators had hoped.
Advanced Search Abstract Purpose: State variation in inclusion of ancillary services in daily Medicaid nursing home reimbursement rates, versus covering ancillary costs outside of such rates, makes rate comparisons difficult. The purpose of this study is to adjust for inclusion of ancillaries when comparing Medicaid rates across states.
Data for — were drawn from a national survey of Medicaid reimbursement. Employing a random-effects model, the PANEL option in the LIMDEP software was used to estimate effects on state average Medicaid nursing facility constant-dollar rates of the inclusion in those rates of a set of ancillaries: Rates averaged higher when they included occupational therapy, physician services, nonprescription drugs, and both DME and medical supplies.
Adjusting for the inclusion of ancillaries leads to a much different ranking of states than for unadjusted rates.
Public and industry policy makers should consider the inclusion of ancillaries in rates when considering the relative adequacy of rates across states.
MedicaidNursing facilityAncillary services Decision Editor: Branch, PhD Medicaid nursing home expenditures have recently grown at a slower rate than in the past Levit et al.
Medicaid nursing home reimbursement methods and per diem reimbursement rates are of great importance in part because they influence the costs of providing care Harrington and Swan However, these policies serve goals beyond cost constraint: Concern is heightened because of the myriad of ways in which these goals may conflict Gertler ; Holahan and Sulvetta ; Swan, Harrington, and Grant ; Swan, Harrington, Grant, Leuhrs, and Preston Of particular concern is the issue of adequate payment, that which is adequate to promote access and cover the costs of higher quality care.
A new Institute of Medicine report Wunderlich and Kohler raised concerns about whether state Medicaid reimbursement rates are adequate to ensure high quality of nursing home care.
The report pointed to the quality of care problems in many nursing homes and the inadequate staffing levels and urged new research on the relationship between reimbursement rates, access, and quality. The Health Care Financing Administration HCFA b also reported serious understaffing in nursing homes throughout the United States, which was found to be related to poor quality of care.
State legislators have also been interested in comparing their Medicaid reimbursement rates with other states and some have made new efforts to increase rates in order to improve staffing levels.
For example, a survey of states found that seven states implemented wage pass-throughs for nursing home workers in their Medicaid reimbursement rates HCFA b. Nursing facilities depend highly on Medicaid as a payer Levit et al. They additionally rely on state Medicaid programs to pay rates adequate to cover costs of care Batavia, Ozminkowski, Gaumer and Gabay ; Reid and Coburn ; Stone and Reublinger Because of impacts on access and quality, Medicaid nursing facility reimbursement policies are of intense interest to the consumer and consumer advocacy groups Sparer ; U.
General Accounting Office Whatever their relative interest in these varied goals, policy makers are understandably concerned with the wide variation across states in per diem rates, particularly because the ratio of the highest average state rate has been four and six times higher than the lowest average state rate every year for over two decades Swan et al.
Comparison of rates is made complex, however, by such factors as interstate differences in what is included in daily rates.Nov 15, · ''The problem of the Mezzogiorno is not just an Italian problem but a European problem,'' Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, Italy's current Treasury Minister and former Prime Minister, wrote in .
Mezzogiorno – peripheral region of Italy and Europe Soil Type A red soil called _____ is the most common soil in Italy. This soil which is rich in iron oxide limits what can grow in this region but it is suitable for crops like vines (_____). Problem Solving and Judgment Selina Appel, Denise Locke, Christina Stamatien, and Amber Hamilton PSY May 12, Dr.
Brian Newbury Problem Solving and Judgment What is problem solving? Problem solving is a complex mental process that includes identifying, analyzing, discovering and . In contrast to blighty, however, in Italy it's the south that's falling behind.
According to the Bank of Italy, GDP per person is more than 40 per cent lower in the Mezzogiorno than it is in the centre and north.
after solving for x and y i know that the solution is (4,) which is the coordinates of the intersecting point, or (x,y) but sometimes you can just put what x equals and what y is seperately: x=4 and y= for #2 equations i will do the exact same thong but with the different numbers.
Italy may conjure up postcard perfect images of beauty, art, and culture, but it is also a country in which nearly 2 million children are struggling to survive.