How do I write a good personal reflection? Often, it is written by an individual to explore personal experiences, feelings and events.
Both short and long term Participant's perspective and interpretation Thus, we see a landscape of researchers investigating sensemaking, coming to various and abstractly consistent but specifically different conclusions. Some of the views are tied to individual problem solving, while others focus on the abstract "organization" and its ability to make meaningful decisions.
Some of the views describe sensemaking in an acute fashion, as an activity that has a start and end, while others view it is a long-term approach that serves as an underpinning for other activities. Design Synthesis is a Process of Sensemaking A fundamental consistency across all researchers above is the necessity of perspective, and an embracing of subjective interpretation as a fundamental aspect to both internal, reflective sensemaking as well as external, collaborative sensemaking.
These are the same qualities that describe design synthesis—a part of the process of design found in all aspects of professional design work including industrial design, interaction design, and service design Kolko, Information Architecture and Design Strategy: The Importance of Synthesis during the Process of Design, Design synthesis is an abductive sensemaking process of manipulating, organizing, pruning and filtering data in an effort to produce information and knowledge Kolko, Interaction Design Synthesis: Translating Research into Insights, This process is used by designers during various parts of the larger design process, as they create new artifacts used here to reference products, systems and services—both physical and digital.
While used throughout the process of design, synthesis is most commonly conducted at a precarious moment between research and definition. At this point in a project, a designer will have gathered large quantities of data from people, through a variety of primary research methods such as contextual inquiry, interviews, ethnographic studies, cultural probe exercises, etc.
They will have also gathered large quantities of data through secondary research methods such as reading reports or journal articles. The intent of conducting this primary and secondary research is to inform the design of a new artifact, but the data itself does nothing to inform design, as data is inactive and lacking context Shedroff, The designer must do something with the data in order for it to become active, and to actively inform design.
They must "use" the data by extracting meaning from it or by generating meaning associated with it. It is at this moment that design synthesis occurs, through an implicit and explicit series of actions. These actions are modified by the word "abductive": Theoretically, these actions are limitless, as they are bounded by an infinite number of possibilities in both the specific domain knowledge being manipulated and in the experience of the designer performing the manipulation.
There are, however, a series of common manipulation actions performed by professional designers; these actions include organization, pruning, interpreting, and reframing. All are driven by a personal perspective.
Organization describes the means by which a designer puts like items "near" each other, either physically often by moving an index card around or implicitly in their cognitive models of the data.
This nearness describes affinity, or likeness, and the intent of organization is commonly in identifying or deriving a series of patterns in the data—or in identifying opportunistic outliers, as these can act as stimulation for innovation.
Organization also describes the ability for a designer to identify relationships and hierarchy, as is the case when creating a concept map, process flow diagram, outline, or tree-view of data.
These relationships indicate prioritization and importance. Pruning describes a selective measure of removing and therefore both ignoring and implicitly prioritizing data.
Designers will prune data based both on popular similarity "this was already captured once, no need to list it twice" and also rareness "this was only captured once, so it's not important"and in this manner, the pruning can be highly subjective and irregular.
It is only within the framework of an appreciative system—with its likings, preferences, values, norms, and meanings—that design experimentation can achieve a kind of objectivity Designers differ with one another, and change over time, with respect to particular design judgments, ways of framing problems, and generic perspectives manifest in their choices of problem settings, means, and paths of inquiry.
In this process, a series of often subjective business, technological, decorative, or functionality constraints are deemed to be true, and this becomes the normative frame.
Reframing is the act of purposefully shifting the normative frame, often temporarily or in multiple directions at once, in order to see things from a new perspective.
Designers may be able to manage multiple frames commonly including "their own", "the user's", and "the business's" and realize tradeoffs when various frames are given precedent. Synthesis actions are rarely mutually exclusive; that is, an action performed during synthesis might be both organizational and interpretative at once, or it might be an act of interpretation occurring in an effort to reframe from a new perspective.
Regardless of the specific synthesis action that the designer takes, synthesis is always generative—it always produces more data, information and knowledge, than was present before the actions began. In this way, it is dissimilar to an empirical study that seeks to understand things that already exist while remaining objectiveand is dissimilar to a predictive behavioral study that seeks to identify causality and what people are likely to do by remaining objective.
Synthesis and design in totality seeks to understand the facets of things that do not yet exist by bringing them into existence, and the process of synthesis helps to guess what people will do, feel, or think once the thing that does not yet exists, exists.
A Need for Rigorous Approaches and Methods to Synthesis While designers have historically referenced a period of design synthesis in their process, little has been done within the community of design research and design practice to formalize methods of synthesis or to describe a cohesive theory of synthesis.
Instead, designers commonly performed design synthesis in the due course of solving a design problem, and it was rarely explicitly separated from forms of ideation and the "raw creativity" commonly associated with form giving.
Additionally, synthesis was rarely conducted overtly—instead, designers would synthesize research through casual conversation in the design studio or—more commonly—through personal reflection, and much of the synthesis process was conducted "in one's head".
However, it has become necessary to conduct design synthesis externally—publically—due to a number of factors: Design problems are more complicated, and therefore, require a more rigorous and explicit process.Unlock the value of host applications and data.
Modernize access and accelerate deployment with Micro Focus Mainframe market space products. To find yourself, lost and without purpose, wondering how you ended up where you are, is a scary thought. If you are not careful, not mindfully aware of where you are going, you could end up somewhere far from where you want to be.
Social networking tools could support reflection through collaboration, dialogue, and feedback. Social networking is a way to keep in touch with and get to know the members of a work organization and team, as well as to share photos and events with friends.
Social networks as a reflection tool: One tool that Facebook offers is photo sharing. Based on the shipping address you selected, the following changes will be made to your order before it is processed: Currency and shipping options will change to reflect those available in the selected region.
How can media and communication studies benefit from technology in the classroom? How do we, as media and communication scholars and teachers, best serve our students?
Julia G. Raz is a PhD candidate in the Department of Communication Studies at the University of Michigan. This web page provides links to publications, presentations, and support materials developed and maintained by Dr.
Helen Barrett, School of Education, University of Alaska Anchorage (retired).. Listserv devoted to issues related to Electronic and Digital Portfolios, beginning July 15, ; References & .