20th century revolutions essay

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20th century revolutions essay

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Scientific disciplines, once they have emerged from the pre-paradigmatic stage, undergo periods 20th century revolutions essay "normal science" which allow them to obtain a high degree of precision and progress rapidly. However, in the course of research, scientists inevitably stumble upon anomalies which the paradigm is unable to explain.

If the paradigm repeatedly fails to explain the anomaly, a crisis ensues and alternative theories develop. Eventually a competing theory proves relatively successful in explaining the anomaly and it replaces the old paradigm.

This replacement is Kuhn's "scientific revolution. According to Kuhn, the adoption of a new paradigm necessarily establishes the creation of new research problems, methods, and expected results. The scientists within the discipline thus sees the world in a different way than it "was" under the old paradigm.

Once the old paradigm is replaced and the revolution has ended, normal science reemerges only to await the discovery of new anomalies.

John Dowell at Bowling Green There, that was certainly easier than going through the exercise of coming up with my own version of Kuhn's argument. Just a quick perusal of the resources on the Internet indicates that there are two general bases of attack on Kuhn.

First, there is a semantic attack because he is somewhat lackadaisical in his use of the term paradigm. Some nitwit has actually counted 21 different definitions for it in this one book. I think it is, or should be, generally accepted that we know what he means; a paradigm is basically the accepted wisdom of a society as it pertains to one area of knowledge--it is the prevailing explanation for something.

Second, many scientists attack him on the basis that his theory is too cynical, implying as it does that scientific theories are simply temporarily useful utilities for explaining things. And since, on some level, we are always awaiting the next paradigm shift, this theory undermines our confidence in their work.

This, it strikes me, is precisely what makes Kuhn's theory so valuable. Like Karl Popper he has laid down a challenge to science. In the heady days of the Enlightenment, The Age of Reason and the Industrial Revolution, it was argued that it was possible that all of existence would yield to human reason and science would explain everything to us.

Personally, I feel that this is true and we will eventually reach such a stage.


But what Popper and Kuhn combined to do was to remind how far we are from such a point and to demonstrate the importance of doubting the current models of thought.

Some scientists would like us to believe that they are discovering abstract truth; this is simply not the case. Science provides us with the best current explanation for things, not with truth. Now Kuhn and Popper are also challenged in regards to whether history has actually followed their theories.

Have scientific revolutions really followed the incremental paths that Kuhn describes? I don't honestly know the answer to that question.

20th century revolutions essay

But it seems to me that his idea of a paradigm shift, taken metaphorically, does fit with our intuition about how a society's view of big issues evolves. Take Welfare Reform as an example.

For 50 years the received wisdom of the elites was that government spending would alleviate poverty and provide the necessary stopgap to tide people over so that they could get jobs.

Government agencies and liberal colleges spent millions of dollars on studies to show that this system was working. Even as research and observation steadily ate away at that notion and conservative critics began to question the system, the establishment clung tenaciously to the outmoded model.

As competing theories were tried in states like Wisconsin and met with success, the public simply lost faith in the assurances of the bureaucracy and President Clinton was forced to adopt the conservative's competition model or be left on the dust heap of history.

The paradigm had shifted and the revolution occurred. It may be that Kuhn's thesis, like any of the paradigmatic systems of the past, will be disproved or has so many anomalies that it too will be discarded.The revolutionary movement from a global culture of war to a global culture of peace is the greatest challenge of the 21st Century.

In the 20th Century the socialist culture of war has failed, but there is still much to learn from great revolutionaries such as Marx, Engels, Lenin, Mao, Che and Fidel, as well as the American, French, Russian, Chinese and Cuban revolutions. Oct 04,  · Revolutions have occurred throughout human history and vary widely in terms of methods, duration, and motivating ideology.

Their results include major changes in culture, economy, and socio-political institutions. Here are what I consider to be the ten most influential revolutions.

the twentieth century Chinese leader, Mao Zedong. Below is a list of all of the essay questions asked so far on the AP exam. Use the list to study and review. Compare the position and roles of 20th century women in China and in sub-Saharan Africa. How much difference do beliefs about women make in women’s lives by the late twentieth century?

From the SparkNotes Blog

“Modern revolutions usually seek to. Modern democracies have continually developed throughout the 20th century. These democracies have culminated from revolutions,wars, and even economic development. As democracies continue to grow democracy promotion has been a key issue for world governments, especially the United State of .

- Nationalism and Racism in the Late 19th and 20th Century In the late 19th century, with the squelching of the revolutions of , many Europeans still desired reforms.

In this desire, the seeds for unification began to germinate. The Broadview Anthology of British Literature Volume 6B: The Twentieth Century and Beyond: From to the Twenty-First Century.

In all six of its volumes The Broadview Anthology of British Literature presents British literature in a truly distinctive light.

20th-century events - Wikipedia